The second most perverted mindset across the psychological spectrum of politics and governance is that of the revolutionary. It is the mind of the revolutionary and his fanatical need to correct some perceived injustice, even if it means murder on a large scale to achieve his political ends, that yields the next most repressive form of government.
Mindset: "Personal trauma has caused an abnormal personality disorder in me. I spend most of my waking hours focusing my hatred and anger from this past event upon a perceived 'political' enemy and wrapping my uncivil criminal and violent agenda in a sanitising cloak of 'a people's political cause'. The immediate result of my revolution ranges from social deconstruction and balkanisation to anarchy and genocide. The governments I may form rely on fear, intimidation and tyranny to control dissent to my authority."
Model of Government: Totalitarian Dictatorship (One Party Rule) after a short period of Mob Rule and Provisional Government.
Intellectual: The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Rights (Jean-Jacques Rousseau), The Rights of Man (Thomas Paine) debunked by Edmund Burke following Reflections on the French Revolution, The Communist Manifesto (Marx and Engels), State and Revolution (Vladimir Ilyich Lenin), Giovanni Gentile, etc. History has completely debunked these latter intellectuals, and much of this debunking was accomplished by the insight and intelligence of one man - George Orwell (1984).
Misguided Quote: "Man is naturally good, loving justice and order. There is absolutely no original perversity in the human heart, and the first movements of nature are always right". Rousseau apparently never believed in our great propensity towards sin.
Practitioners: The leaders of the French, Russian, German and Chinese Revolutions... Jacobin France, Soviet Communism, German Nazism, Red China, Viet Cong, Khmer Rouge, Sandinistan Nicaragua...Robespierre, Stalin, Hitler, Mao Zedong, Pol Pot, Nicolae Ceausescu, Che Guevara...revolutionary "leaders" and their puppets share the megalomania of "type 1" despots.
Manifestations: 18th C. Jacobinism, 19th C. Anarchism, 20th C. Marxism/Communism/National Socialism, all spawning a kind of atheistic despotism, now giving way to 21st C. Islamic Terrorism. This perverse extreme left wing mindset has many commonalities with classic imperialist thinking, but is usually distinguished by a popular political movement whose leaders generally do not share the malignant narcissim of bemedalled tinpots in dark shades. Thus you get modestly dressed peasants like Stalin or Mao or even Hitler, compared to the pomposity of classic imperialists. Hitler, it must be said, seems to straddle both mindsets, for here is a national socialist revolutionary out to conquer Europe and the world for Germany's racist/nationalist glory.
Notable Results: The Reign of Terror, The Great Purge, The Holocaust, The Great Leap Forward, The Killing Fields, Al Qaeda Sep 11th...
Contemporary: Dear Kim of North Korea, Cuba's Castro, Chavez's Venezuela, Zimbabwe's Mugabe, the Black Panther Party in the United States and other residual Marxists/terrorists. Obviously Osama Bin Laden carries the mindset of a revolutionary with an ancient grudge, holed up in the mountains with his people planning their next attack.
Not Included: The Right to Revolution and the Two Treatises of Government by John Locke, the mindsets that led to the 'Glorious Revolution' and George Washington to switch allegiance and lead the American Revolution, nor the rebel mindset of William Lyon MacKenize, who led the revolt against the Family Compact during the Canadians Rebellions, which in turn led to responsible government.
Comments: The rationalistic and revolutionary values spawned by the Enlightenment gave us - in the name of Progress - guillotines, gaols, gallows, gas chambers, gulags and a repertoire of genocides that continues to this day. We have wrongly been conditioned to think of medievalism as a kind of backwards morality, but compared to the fear, slaughter and tyranny since Jacobinism first took root, the Middle Ages were probably a living paradise. I know Robespierre kept ranting about virtue and probably saw himself as sea-green incorruptible, but I still can't help thinking that loyalty, chivalry, nobility and the ancient and natural values espoused by monarchist societies are still superior to the equality rights of man. The real question is this: what form of government offers its people the greatest measure of liberty? An ancient monarchy whereby people rarely came into contact with the state, or big modern expensive bureaucracies tasked with bringing ever greater 'equality', 'progress' and 'social justice' to the people as a result of those revolutionary ideas that were unleashed during the Enlightenment?